## Goal Weight Calculation

I discovered that I did the calculations wrong for my target weight. Lyle McDonald has a formula on his Body Composition site:

Goal Weight = Current Lean Body Mass / (1-Goal Body Fat percentage as a decimal)

My LBM is 144.4. My Goal Body Fat percentage is 15%. So the correct goal weight is:

144.4/(1-.15) = 170 lbs

Checking it backwards, if my fat percentage is 15% then my LBM is 85%:

170 x 0.85 = 144.5 – so that’s the correct formula.

I was calculating it as LBM x (1 + Body Fat percentage as a decimal) which was a number of 166 lbs. I know it’s not a huge difference but at 190.8 lbs getting to 170 seems slightly more doable than 166 lbs.

I really like Lyle’s site. Lot of good information. And better math than my own math.

NIH Calculator for body weight

## Nokia Body+ Body Composition Scale

I just got my Nokia Body+ scale. Cost \$100 from Amazon.

Scale does a pretty good job. It’s wireless and connects up to CRON-O-Meter automatically.

Body Fat percentage was 23.3% which is not too far off from the 25.3% I got at the BodPod yesterday.

## Body Fat Measurement via BodPod

For my second Bod Pod measurement see this (Overshot My Recomp Goals – Part 1).

The following was my first Bod Pod measurement. Well, I got the answer I was looking for. I went to the West Virginia University Human Performance Lab and had my body fat percentage measured with the BodPod.

My numbers came back as:

• Body Fat: 25.3%
• Current Weight: 193.3 lbs
• Lean Body Mass: 144.4 lbs

So to get to my 15% Body fat number, I need to get to:

144 / (1-0.15) = 169 lbs

So I still need to lose 27 .25 lbs. I should be able to do this if I stick with the PSMF diet for the next few months.

## Which Metric does it Correlate Best with?

The USN Calculator puts me at 25.0% Body fat. That’s very close to BodPod number and is much closer than both the caliper method (17%) and my body composition scale (30%).

## What about Muscle vs Fat Density?

The whole idea about muscle vs fat is oversold. According to Lyle McDonald an untrained person can put on something like 2 lbs of muscle in a month. And that is for someone young, etc. But let’s assume that in 3 months I can actually put on 6 lbs of Lean Body Mass as muscle. That would put my LBM at:

144.4 + 6 = 150.6 lbs

At 15% Body Fat that would be

150.6 x 1.15 = 173.2 lbs

So there’s only a bit of leverage with the muscle. Instead of having to cut weight to 166 I could cut weight to 173.2 lbs. Either way, that’s still 20 lbs down from where I am now. And that’s the maximum amount possible.

Put another way, that 6 lbs of LBM gain results in 7.2 lbs less of fat loss needed. It does help somewhat with Base Metabolic Rate.

## Body Fat via Skin Fold Measurements

I borrowed a friend’s body fat calipers to measure my body fat. Measurements were:

14, 20, and 12 mm. Running the calculator gave me the following:

I am skeptical about the results. I think my numbers are higher in percent fat and fat mass (with lower lean mass) than that. My USN tape measurement number is around 25%. My scale has me at 30% body fat.

This matters because if my LBM is 161 lbs and my goal is 15% Body fat then my goal weight would be 185 lbs.

## Methodology

Jackson, A., & Pollock, M. (1978). Generalized equations for predicting body density of menBritish Journal of Nutrition, 40(3), 497-504. doi:10.1079/BJN19780152 (Full Text).

• Men
BD = 1.10938 – 0.0008267(Y) + 0.0000016(Y^2) – 0.0002574(Age)
where Y= sum of Chest, Abdominal and Thigh skinfolds in mm
• Women
BD=1.0994291 – 0.0009929(Z) + 0.0000023(Z^2) – 0.0001392(Age)
where Z = sum of Triceps, Thigh and Suprailliac skinfolds in mm.

Once body density is determined, percent bodyfat (%BF) can be calculated using the Siri equation below : % Body Fat = (495 / Body Density) – 450.

## One Year on the scale (Sept 2017)

I found my scale numbers from a year ago. This was about 10 weeks after I started Keto so it doesn’t show my full weight drop. But it does show some great trends.

 Date Weight BMI Body Fat % Total Body Water % Muscle Mass % Body Fat lbs Body Water lbs Muscle Lbs 2016-10-11 248.2 34.0 40.3 28.0 21.1 100.0 69.5 52.4 2017-09-29 197.2 27.0 30.9 38.0 28.4 60.9 74.9 56.0 Difference -51.0 -7.0 -9.4 10.0 7.3 -39.1 5.4 3.6

Weight is down 51 lbs. That’s a lb a week. A decent number.

Body fat dropped by almost 40 lbs of the 51 lbs lost. That’s a great result.

Water lbs is up! That’s really good and signals a recomposition.

Equally important is that my muscle lbs has gone from 53 to 56 lbs. Not huge but definitely my muscle mass has not suffered from a year of keto and fasting.

## Body Recomposition – Part 8

Here’s a good study of PSMF (Van Gaal LF, Snyders D, De Leeuw IH, Bekaert JL. Anthropometric and calorimetric evidence for the protein sparing effects of a new protein supplemented low calorie preparation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;41:410-540).

A commercial protein sparing modified fast (PSMF) preparation has been evaluated for the protein sparing effects in 15 morbidly obese patients. During a 500 kcal preparation, given during a 6-week period, mean body weight and BMI decreased significantly. Total body fat decreased from 55.8 to 41.4 kg and lean body mass and arm muscle circumference (AMC) remained unchanged. Using indirect calorimetry and under the same degree of energy expenditure, carbohydrate metabolic consumption was significantly diminished (166 to 61 g/24 hr; p less than 0.001) but fat consumption was increased (116 to 155 g/24 hr; p less than 0.05) while the metabolic turn-over of protein was unchanged. This new presented PSMF preparation seems to present the typical properties of a protein sparing modified fast.

Here’s another study (Bistrian DR, Winterer J, Blackburn GL, Young V, Sherman M.. Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects, J Lab Clin Med. 1977 May;89(5):1030-5).

Five young, mildly obese females consumed a formula diet providing total calories at 1.2 X basal energy expenditure and egg white protein, 1.5 gm./kg. ideal body weight (IBW), for 1 week (period 1). During period 2, lasting 3 weeks, a protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) consisted of similar amounts of egg white without nonprotein calories followed by a 1-week total fast (period 3). In the final period (4), a PSMF with the use of meat protein, 1.5 gm./kg. IBW, alone was given for 1 week.

Nitrogen balance (Nbal) measurements were made in all periods, and periods 2, 3, and 4 were compared with period 1. No significant difference existed between period 1 and period 2, although Nbal improved weekly during period 2. Nitrogen excretion in period 3 was similar to that found after 3 weeks of total fasting and was significantly negative, whereas positive balances occurred in period 4 with both periods being significantly different from period 1.

Thus nitrogen equilibrium in the PSMF can be achieved with the use of protein free from fat, confirming earlier experience with meat protein. The metabolic adaption which occurs during total fasting and results in reduced nitrogen loss develops in the course of PSMF. After a deficit in lean body mass is produced, net protein anabolism can be achieved by a PSMF despite insufficient dietary energy.

Here’s another study (Chang J, Kashyap SR. The protein-sparing modified fast for obese patients with type 2 diabetes: what to expect. Cleve Clin J Med. 2014;81:557-565).

Here’s the second figure from the paper:

## Body Recomposition – Part 3

Body recomposition is the idea of replacing fat in our bodies with muscle.

## Our Weight

The goal should not be weight loss. The goal should actually be fat loss.

## Recomposition

Fat can’t be turned into muscle. They are two different types of cells and are at different places in the body.

Fat can be lost, but the only effective means to lose fat is to cause the body to eat it’s own body fat. Fat doesn’t just disappear for no reason. Your body wants to retain the fat in case it is needed.

The common way to lose weight is to reduce caloric intake and increase the energy expenditure. This is commonly called “eat less, move more”.

Fine tuning this methodology is to take a look at the macros, IE, fat, carbs and protein.

## What can we do with our macros?

For body recomposition we don’t want to drop our protein levels. To build muscle mass we probably want to increase our daily protein intake. Maybe not by a lot, but it’s not the area that should be cut.

Fat and carbs both provide protein. We don’t need carbs but we do need fat. It is an essential nutrient. So this is the reason that people use low carb diets for losing weight.

Ketogenic diets are becoming popular today. They are Low Carb, High Fat and Moderate Protein. These diets provide quick weight loss but a lot of that weight is water loss. With any diet a lot of the weight loss is water. And that’s not a bad thing. But it’s quickly regained if the person returns to their previous macro mixture.

The fastest way to lose fat is to do the following:

• Ketogenic carb levels, < 20 grams of carbs per day. This puts the diet into fat burning mode instead of carb burning mode. It’s the best way to go for people with Insulin Resistance. (Prediabetes: A high-risk state for developing diabetes)
• Protein at a sufficient level to gain muscle mass. The amount depends upon your training level. (How Much Protein?)
• Fat to fill the gap between what your body can provide and what your energy needs are for the day.

I’ve made a calculator to estimate these macros (PSMF Calculator).

## Building Muscle

It takes physical exercise to build muscle. And the right kind of physical exercise to build muscle.

## A Percentages Game

The real goal should be to drop body fat percentage. Body fat percentage is the number of lbs of total body weight that are fat. A numerical example might make the point clearer. Say a man weight 200 lbs and has 25% body fat. That man has 50 lbs of fat and 150 lbs of lean mass. If that person made a goal of 15% body fat with that same 150 lbs of lean mass that would be 22.5 lbs of body fat and a total weight of 172.5 lbs. The man’s body has definitely been recomposed even if he didn’t gain a single ounce of lean mass or muscle.

It is probably still necessary to gain muscle mass at the same time.

# So Low Fat Then?

## NO – Not Low Fat

What am I suggesting? Is it Low Fat? Nope. To review I am suggesting a diet of:

• Less than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day
• Adequate protein – for me 115 grams of Protein a day (KetoGains Protein Levels)
• Enough fat to maintain Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) levels (TDEE Calculator)
• Some of this fat comes from body fat
• The remainder of the fat comes from dietary fat

This may mean a very low level of dietary fat at the beginning of the way of eating. It will progress towards a proper level of fat to maintain the goal weight. But don’t fear – you will still have plenty of high quality fats to consume from your own body.

## The Goal?

There’s two complementary goals that are possible. Either we have the goal of a reaching a certain weight or of reaching a certain body fat percentage. These two numbers turn out to be directly related to each other. That’s because your weight is the sum of your Lean Body Mass (LBM) and your Fat Mass. If you hold your LBM constant and reduce your Fat Mass it will reduce your body weight by the same amount.

## An Example of the Goal

The math is pretty straightforward but an example could help.

Say you are a 200 lb male with 150 lbs of LBM. Your fat mass is 50 lbs. You have 25% body fat. If you want to go to 15% body fat that means you must lost 10% of your weight or 20 lbs. Your target weight at 15% body fat is 180 lbs.

# Simplified Steps

2. With a tape measure:
Height______________ in
Neck ________________ in
Waist ______________ in
Hips (if you ware a woman) _________________ in
3. Plug in your measurements from step 2 into USN BodyFat Calculator.
Lean Body Mass = ________________ %
Body Fat =_________________%
4. Calculate your max fat loss by multiplying your Body Fat from Step 3 by 31
Body Fat __________ lbs x 31 cals/lb = ____________ calories
5. Weight loss per day = number (step 4)  ______ / 3500 = _____
(This number should be a fraction around 0.5 for many people).
LBM = Weight (step 1) _________ minus Body Fat (step 3) _____ = ________ lbs
7. Calculate your TDEE = ___________  calories
8. Your calories from carbs should be less than 20 x 4 = 80 calories.
9. Calculate your protein needs from using one of the constants from KetoGains FAQ page Protein Needs section
0.69 to 0.8 g / lb of LBM – sedentary person
0.8 to 1.0 / lb of LBM – mildly active
1.0 to 1.2 / lb of LBM  – bodybuilders, etc
Protein Needs (0.69 to 1.2) _____________ x LBM (step 5) __________ = _______________ grams
Protein calories = 4 x Protein grams __________ = ______ calories
10. Calculate the total fat calories you can consume each day (both fat from body and fat from diet.
TDEE (step 6) _______ minus carbs (step 7) ________ minus protein (step 8) = ____________ fat calories
11. Calculate the calories of fat that you can consume the first day.
Total fat calories (Step 10) ______ minus Calories available from your body (Step 4) ________________ = ___________ calories

## Me as an Example

2. With a tape measure:
Height [71] in
Neck [16] in
Waist [40] in
Hips (if you are a woman) [I am Not a woman] in
3. Plug in your measurements from step 2 into USN BodyFat Calculator.
Lean Body Mass [148] lbs
Body Fat [26] %
Weight _________ lbs times
5. Calculate your max fat loss by multiplying your Body Fat from Step 3 by 31
Body Fat [] lbs x 31 cals/lb = ____________ calories
6. Weight loss per day = number (step 4)  ______ / 3500 = _____
(This number should be a fraction around 0.5 for many people).
LBM = Weight (step 1) _________ minus Body Fat (step 3) _____ = ________ lbs
8. Calculate your TDEE = ___________  calories
9. Your calories from carbs should be less than 20 x 4 = 80 calories.
10. Calculate your protein needs from using one of the constants from KetoGains FAQ page Protein Needs section
0.69 to 0.8 g / lb of LBM – sedentary person
0.8 to 1.0 / lb of LBM – mildly active
1.0 to 1.2 / lb of LBM  – bodybuilders, etc
Protein Needs (0.69 to 1.2) _____________ x LBM (step 5) __________ = _______________ grams
Protein calories = 4 x Protein grams __________ = ______ calories
11. Calculate the total fat calories you can consume each day (both fat from body and fat from diet.
TDEE (step 6) _______ minus carbs (step 7) ________ minus protein (step 8) = ____________ fat calories
12. Calculate the calories of fat that you can consume the first day.
Total fat calories (Step 10) ______ minus Calories available from your body (Step 4) ________________ = ___________ calories

# What Will I Track?

When I started keto I tracked everything. That lasted about a week and then I slipped into a pattern of eating.

Currently, I track nothing formally. I do keep carbs below 20 grams (by approximation). After years of having an Insulin pump I got pretty good at estimating my number of grams of carbs. I check myself periodically with new foods to see how close my guess was and I am usually right on.

But to do this experiment right I will track the following

• All meals I eat
• Grams of Carbs
• Grams of Protein
• Grams of Fat
• Do the math for percentage of each over a day
• Do the math for total calories per day
• Scale numbers
• Weight
• BMI
• Body Fat Percentage
• Base Calories to maintain current weight
• Workout times (assuming effort is to exhaustion due to CrossFit)

# What Does My Scale Say Now (at the start)?

My fancy lying scale tells me:

• Weight: 202.8 lbs
• BMI: 27.8
• Body Fat: 32%
• Body Water percentage?: 36.9%
• Muscle Mass percentage: 27.6%
• Calories max to hold weight: 2238

I set the scale for extreme sedentary when I purchased it.

I am skeptical of the Body Fat percentage number because if it is right, my LBM is 202.8 times (1-0.32) = 138 lbs. That doesn’t match the numbers from the Navy Calculator. But it could very well be right. I am going to track these numbers daily too.

# What Will I Eat?

For my n=1 I will eat the following

## Isopure, Zero Carb Protein Powder

I will consume 2 Servings per day of the Protein Powder. That will cover nearly all of my daily vitamins (except Iron) and I will need some additional Potassium and Sodium. Morton Lite Salt in my coffee should get me close.

1 Serving (2 scoops) has 50 g of Protein,  0.5 g of Fat and 0 g of Carbs. The serving also has 50% of the day’s Magnesium, 21% of the Sodium and 23% of the Potassium.

That leaves me at a deficit of:

• 125g – 100g = 25g Protein
• 20g – 0g = 20g Carbs
• 1T of fat (give or take at the start)

## Some Typical Foods to Fill the Gap

 Description Size Fat (g) Carbs(g) Net Protein(g) Fat Cal Carb Cal Protein Cal Total Calories IsoPure Whey 2 Scoops 0.5 0 50 4.5 0 200 206 Broccoli 14 oz 0 9 4.5 0 36 18 54 Chia Seeds 1T 9 2 4.7 81 8 18.8 108

To be added to as time goes on.

# Goals

Proposing to do a test on myself with the following goals:

1. Improve HbA1C number (HbA1C is a lab test which shows the Blood Sugar over the previous three months)
July 2017: 5.8 (Low end of Pre-Diabetic level)
Goal: < 5.6 (Below bottom of Pre-Diabetic levels)
2. Lose weight to reach 15% Body Fat (Visualize Body Fat percentages)
[Changed goal later to 20.9%]
3. Barring any injury, be able to do exercise throughout entire test (CrossFit)
Submaximally is OK (<85% of max level)
4. Conserve current LBM (Lose Weight but not muscle)
5. Maintain current metabolic levels.
The same thing as saying not to eat at a net calorie deficit.

# Methodology

The means to this end is a form of the Protein Sparing Modified Fast:

A protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) is a very low calorie diet with some protein, fluids, and vitamin and mineral supplementation.

I don’t plan on doing this using very-low-calories but with an adequate level of calories to not lower my metabolism. The source of calories will come from both body fat and from macro-nutrients consumed.

# The Math

Some math is required. Some of this is constants (values which don’t change) and some of it is variables (numbers which you can play with). Part of the variables relate to weights and measurements. Some of the variables change day to day.

# MacroNutrients to Achieve Goals

There are only three macronutrients in this world (other than alcohol). They are fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Selecting the right mix and amount of each of these three macronutrients is what any diet is about.

## Low Carbohydrates

Of the three macronutrients, carbohydrates have the most effect on blood sugar and are the lest important macronutrient for function. It is necessary to stay at a low carbohydrate level to maintain a low blood sugar level.

I plan on sticking with the 20 grams of carbs per day limit. This number will not change over the course of this experiment. The source will continue to be green vegetables.

## Protein for LBM preservation and Gainz

The Protein Sparing Modified Fast provides enough protein to maintain LBM and a little extra protein to cover muscle building. Dr Fung has a lower value for this number than most of the other sources (0.61 g/kg/day). KetoGains has a number of 0.8 g/lb/day of LBM.

For my LBM of 156 lbs, that’s 124.8 grams of protein per day. This number will not change over the course of this experiment since I want to maintain my LBM. I don’t want this number to be higher because it will lead to GNG or lower because it will lead to LBM loss.

## Fat Level

When I have done long fasts, the lack of fat during the fast put me at a metabolic deficit. I could see this was true from my body temperature which was cold. I had enough energy to walk and function but was quickly tired by any exercise.

What gets left over after carbs and fat are determined is the amount of fat. Rather than High Fat or Moderate Fat of the typical LCHF/Keto diet, dietary fat is only used to make up the difference between the fat oxidation rate and the number of calories needed to not drop the base metabolic rate.

On day 1, that is only 17 grams of fat – about 1/2T of butter a day. That is quite a bit lower than I am currently doing but that’s probably why I am not losing weight. If I go over this number it will decrease my daily deficit and I will lose weight slower.

# Intermittent Fasting

In the short term, I plan to do this experiment by continuing to feed one time per day. This is convenient and helps me keep my Insulin levels as long as possible. I may experiment with the timing of this one meal or may split it into a pre and post workout meal.

# Testing the Results

Any good experiment requires some evaluation criteria against the goals. For this experiment I will:

Proposing to do a test on myself with the following goals:

## Goal: Improve HbA1C number

Measurement: Get test done of HbA1C on Jan 1 for  < 5.6. Surrogate will be 90-day average blood sugar of 110 or less.

## Goal: Reach 15% Body Fat

Measurement:  Use Visualize Body Fat percentages to check body fat percentage. Get third party to check from the pictures. Alternately use BodPod or DEXA scan test.

## Goal: Be able to do exercise throughout transition

Measurement: Stick with current CrossFit with minimum average attendance record of 3 days per week. Stretch goal of 4 days per week (only open 5 days per week). Submaximal performance is OK although I would like to be able to complete at least 50% of timed WODs in the allowed times.

## Goal: Maintain current LBM

Measurement: Same as Body Fat % Goal.

## Goal: Maintain current metabolic levels.

Will know if this works if end weight is maintainable.

Best thing is this all could be done by Christmas!