I really want to make some sort of map or list of questions that shows the groups and their “pet peeves”. The sorts of things include:
- Is taking Insulin good? Bernstein people say yes because their goal is lowest blood sugars. Keto people say no because they believe that more Insulin is more Insulin Resistance which is the root cause.
- Protein macros. Ketogains folks believe in 2-3 times the protein of most other keto groups. Other keto groups focus on the Insulin response of the body to protein. Too much protein although it doesn’t immediately raise the blood sugar does have a significant Insulin response so they keep it low. (Fung vs Finney/Volek).
- Exercise or not? Many keto groups say don’t exercise and point to the studies which show that diet plus exercise doesn’t lose any more weight than diet alone. Other groups are all about exercise and point to their physiques as evidence (and some are spectacular). They argue it is more about fitness than weight.
- Fasting. Most keto groups are starting to catch onto fasting. Some are not.
- What constitutes fasting? One group has a very, very specific list of things that you can consume while fasting and specifically excludes things like dry fasting.
- I think for the most part that the keto community agrees with the 20 grams or less of carbs a day but there may be differences with subtracting fiber when calculating. Certainly some have flexibility when it comes to additional vegetables.
- Artificial sweetners. Again various opinions on their positive and negative values.
There are probably a lot more dimensions to this but those are the ones that come to mind.The best piece of advise I can give anyone is to read the pinned post when you join a Keto Facebook group. Most groups will ask you to do that and if you don’t agree with the pinned post don’t make it your personal mission to convert the group to your point of view. Just leave the group.
There are only three things in what we eat; carbohydrates, protein and fat*. Each of the three have a different effect on the glucose level in our blood (Blood Sugar level). The effect is shown in the following graph.
- Carbs spike blood sugars to high levels for a short time.
- Proteins don’t spike blood sugar as high but they are around for a longer time.
- Fat has the least amount of spike to blood sugar but they have a very long active time.
The curve shows why LCHF works for most people. If you reduce eating carbs and replace them with fat you greatly lower your glucose load and your insulin in the process.
*There is a 4th thing – alcohol. The body burns alcohol quite nicely. In fact, it burns alcohol before anything else (sorta).
Here are some of the scientific studies concerning Protein Sparing Modified Fasts (PSMF) and high protein diets.
- A Palgi, J L Read, I Greenberg, M A Hoefer, B R Bistrian, and G L Blackburn Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: results in 668 outpatients. American Journal of Public Health, October 1985
- Bistrian DR, Winterer J, Blackburn GL, Young V, Sherman M.. Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects, J Lab Clin Med. 1977 May;89(5):1030-5.
- Van Gaal LF, Snyders D, De Leeuw IH, Bekaert JL. Anthropometric and calorimetric evidence for the protein sparing effects of a new protein supplemented low calorie preparation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985; 41:410-540.
- Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):416-21. Benefits of high-protein weight loss diets: enough evidence for practice? Brehm BJ, D’Alessio DA.
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1298-306. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Noakes M, Keogh JB, Foster PR, Clifton PM.
- Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):317-25. Comparison of the effects of weight loss from a high-protein versus standard-protein energy-restricted diet on strength and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese men. Wycherley TP, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Brinkworth GD.
- Schoeller DA1, Buchholz AC. Energetics of obesity and weight control: does diet composition matter?J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May;105(5 Suppl 1):S24-8.
- Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, Christou DD. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):411-7.
- Halton TL, Hu FB. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):373-85.
- Brehm BJ, D’Alessio DA. Benefits of high-protein weight loss diets: enough evidence for practice? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):416-21.
- de Luis, et.al. Effects of a high-protein/low carbohydrate versus a standard hypocaloric diet on adipocytokine levels and insulin resistance in obese patients along 9 months. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. Volume 29, Issue 7, September–October 2015, Pages 950-954.
Muscle Protein Synthesis
- Satoshi Fujita,et.al. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle protein synthesis is modulated by insulin-induced changes in muscle blood flow and amino acid availability Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct; 291(4): E745–E754.
- Buse, M. G. & Reid, S. S. (1975) Leucine. A possible regulator of protein turnover in muscle. J. Clin. Invest. 56:1250–1261.
- Hong, S. C. & Layman, D. K. (1984) Effects of leucine on in vitro protein synthesis and degradation in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. 114:1204–1212.
- Li, J. B. & Jefferson, L. S. (1978) Influence of amino acid availability on protein turnover in perfused skeletal muscle. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 544:351–359.
- Lundholm K, Edström S, Ekman L, Karlberg I, Walker P, Scherstén T. Protein Degradation in Human Skeletal Muscle Tissue: The Effect of Insulin, Leucine, Amino Acids. Clin Sci (Lond). 1981 Mar;60(3):319-26.
Studies on Protein and Diabetes
- Donald K. Layman, Jamie I. Baum. Dietary Protein Impact on Glycemic Control during Weight Loss. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 4, 1 April 2004, Pages 968S–973S.
- Judith Farrés, Albert Pujol, Mireia Coma, Jose Luis Ruiz, Jordi Naval, José Manuel Mas, Agustí Molins, Joan Fondevila and Patrick Aloy. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. Nutrition & Metabolism 2010 7:88.
- Chang J, Kashyap SR. The protein-sparing modified fast for obese patients with type 2 diabetes: what to expect. Cleveland Clinic J Med. 2014;81:557-565.
- Bruce R Bistrian, M.D., Ph.D., George L Blackburn, M.D., Ph.D., Jean-Pierre Flatt, Ph.D., Jack Sizer, M.D., Nevin S Scrimshaw, Ph.D., M.D. and Mindy Sherman, B.A. Nitrogen Metabolism and Insulin Requirements in Obese Diabetic Adults on a Protein-Sparing Modified Fast. Diabetes 1976 Jun; 25(6): 494-504.
- Mary C Gannon, Frank Q Nuttall, Asad Saeed, Kelly Jordan, and Heidi Hoover. An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition October 2003 vol. 78 no. 4 pp 734-741.
- Diabetes 2004 Sep; 53(9): 2375-2382. Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People With Type 2 Diabetes. Mary C. Gannon and Frank Q. Nuttall.
- Obes Facts. 2017 Jul; 10(3): 238–251. Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Ismael Campos-Nonato, Lucia Hernandez, and Simon Barquera.
Protein as a Macronutrient and Protein Requirements
- The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 77, Issue 1, 1 January 2003, Pages 109–127. Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults. William M Rand Peter L Pellett Vernon R Young.
- Jose Antonio, Corey A Peacock, Anya Ellerbroek, Brandon Fromhoff and Tobin Silver. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2014:11:19.
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Mar;103(3):738-46. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119339. Epub 2016 Jan 27. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Longland TM, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips SM.