Want to spend a very confusing day? Watch a bunch of
TED talks on the T2D subject by different speakers.
Here’s a sampling:
Vegetarian guy who says
meat is the problem with everything that ails us. His buddy the vegan weightlifter. Another vegetarian guy. They tell me I am not getting enough starch. They have not got the slightest clue about insulin resistance. My conclusion is they own stock in casket manufacturers. Paleolithic diet critic who is an archaeologist who points out the
holes in the Paleo diet. Seems like the truth is we no longer have the ancient grasses food nor range fed animals so we are pretty much screwed either way. Food pyramid critics who say all those carbs aren’t all that good for us. (All of them fall into this category).
Fat has been good for us all the way along woman. She is right. The belief that fat makes us fat is flawed and disproven. Guy who says
everything we can possibly eat is poison.
Sugar is the problem guy.
Throw out the food pyramid woman. Fits in with Low Carb advocates.
They all have some unique insights. They all have some overlapping points.
last one is the best (IMO) of all of the talks.
Her key points are:
Carbs are making us sick.
We don’t need carbs.
Cutting carbs helps T2Ds by lowering their insulin.
40%+ of heart attacks are caused by insulin resistance.
Lowering carbs lowers insulin requirements.
Diabetes is reversible via low carb diet.
Protein and carbohydrates all create glucose.
Fat is what remains and it is good.
Practically this means eating food from the outside ring of the supermarket. Nothing out of the middle rows. No pasta, no cereal, nothing made of wheat, none of the processed foods in the middle. Outside ring is vegetables, meat, dairy, eggs. Maybe 15% of the stuff in the store.
Studies on Fasting will be listed here.
Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 17 March 2011.
Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss? K. A. Varady, KA Varady. J Appl Physiol 99: 2128 –2136, 2005.
Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. Nils Halberg, Morten Henriksen, Nathalie So¨derhamn, Bente Stallknecht, Thorkil Ploug, Peter Schjerling, and Flemming Dela. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1138-43.
Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults. Varady KA1, Bhutani S, Church EC, Klempel MC. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 201312:4
The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women. Samira Eshghinia and Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh SA JOURNAL OF DIABETES & VASCULAR DISEASE.
Intermittent fasting: a dietary intervention for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease? James E Brown,Michael Mosley, Sarah Al Nutrition. 1995 Mar-Apr;11(2):149-53.
Glycerol gluconeogenesis in fasting humans. Baba H1, Zhang XJ, Wolfe RR. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 60, Issue 1, 1 July 1994, Pages 29–36.
Fuel and energy metabolism in fasting humans. M G Carlson W L Snead P J Campbell.
Here are Studies specifically on the effects of diets on Diabetes (particularly low carbohydrate diets).
Laura R Saslow, PhD, et.al.
An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2017 Feb; 19(2): e36. Guenther Boden. (2005).
Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Ann Intern Med . 2005; 142(6):403-411. Mary C. Gannon and Frank Q. Nuttall.
Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes 2004 Sep; 53(9): 2375-2382. Jørgen Vesti, Nielsen, Eva Joensson.
Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up. Nutrition & Metabolism, December 2006, 3:22. Diabetes Care 2002 Apr; 25(4): 652-657.
Effects of Energy-Restricted Diets Containing Increased Protein on Weight Loss, Resting Energy Expenditure, and the Thermic Effect of Feeding in Type 2 Diabetes. N.D. Luscombe, BSC HON1, P.M. Clifton, MD2, M. Noakes, MSC, PHD2, B. Parker, BSC HON1 and G. Wittert, MD. JAMA. 1994.
Effects of Varying Carbohydrate Content of Diet in Patients With Non—Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Abhimanyu Garg, MBBS, MD; John P. Bantle, MD; Robert R. Henry, MD; et al Ann M. Coulston, RD; Kay A. Griver, RD; Susan K. Raatz, MS, RD; Linda Brinkley, RD; Y-D. Ida Chen, PhD; Scott M. Grundy, MD, PhD; Beverley A. Huet, MS; Gerald M. Reaven, MD. Lipids. 2009 Apr;44(4):297-309.
Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Volek JS, Phinney SD, Forsythe CE, Quann EE, Wood RJ, Puglisi MJ, Kraemer WJ, Bibus DM, Fernandez ML, Feinman RD. J Clin Invest. 1936 Nov; 15(6): 665–671.
The Glycemic Response to Isoglucogenic Quantities of Protein and Carbohydrate. Jerome W. Conn and L. H. Newburgh. N Engl J Med 1988; 319:829-834.
Comparison of a High-Carbohydrate Diet with a High-Monounsaturated-Fat Diet in Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Abhimanyu Garg, M.B., B.S., M.D., Andrea Bonanome, M.D., Scott M. Grundy, M.D., Ph.D., Zu-Jun Zhang, M.D., and Roger H. Unger, M.D. Metabolism. Volume 41, Issue 12, December 1992, Pages 1373-1378 Metabolism.
A high-monounsaturated-fat/low-carbohydrate diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. M. Parillo, A.A. Rivellese, A.V. Ciardullo, B. Capaldo, A. Giacco, S. Genovese, G. Riccardi. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 86, Issue 3, 1 March 2001, Pages 1040–1047,
Effect of Protein Ingestion on the Glucose Appearance Rate in People with Type 2 Diabetes. M. C. Gannon J. A. Nuttall G. Damberg V. Gupta F. Q. Nuttall. Obesity (2016) 24, 79–86.
Weight Loss on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate Diets by Insulin Resistance Status Among Overweight Adults and Adults With Obesity: A Randomized Pilot Trial. Christopher D. Gardner, Lisa C. Offringa, Jennifer C. Hartle, Kris Kapphahn, and Rise Cherin. Bonnie J. Brehm, Randy J. Seeley, Stephen R. Daniels, David A. D’Alessio.
A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 88, Issue 4, 1 April 2003, Pages 1617–1623. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Jan 11;3:7.
Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, James AP, Mamo JC, Clifton PM. Jeannie Tay B Nutr Diet (Hons), Grant D. Brinkworth PhD, Manny Noakes PhD, Jennifer Keogh M Sc, Peter M. Clifton PhD.
Metabolic Effects of Weight Loss on a Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diet Compared With an Isocaloric High-Carbohydrate Diet in Abdominally Obese Subjects. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 51, Issue 1, 1–8 January 2008, Pages 59-67. JAMA. 1994 May 11;271(18):1421-8.
Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, Coulston AM, Griver KA, Raatz SK, Brinkley L, Chen YD, Grundy SM, Huet BA, et al. Nutrition & Metabolism2004 1:6.
Metabolic response of people with type 2 diabetes to a high protein diet. Frank Q Nuttall, Mary C Gannon. Obes Facts. 2017 Jul; 10(3): 238–251.
Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Ismael Campos-Nonato, Lucia Hernandez, and Simon Barquera. J Clin Invest. 1988 Feb; 81(2): 442–448.
Twenty-four-hour profiles and pulsatile patterns of insulin secretion in normal and obese subjects. K S Polonsky, B D Given, and E Van Cauter. Nutrients. 2013 Jun; 5(6): 2019–2027.
Body Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance. Pavankumar Patel* and Nicola Abate. Connor WE, Prince MJ, Ullmann D, et al.
The hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in adult-onset diabetes without adverse glucose control. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993;683:337–40.
Fish Oil and Glycemic Control in Diabetes. DIABETES CARE, VOLUME 21, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1998. Frieberg, et.al.).
Insulin Response to Glucose in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects. John D. Bagdade, Edwin L. Bierman, and Daniel Porte Jr. Journal of Clinical Investigation. October 1, 1967.
These are studies related to diabetes in general:
Diabetes Care 1991 Mar; 14(3): 173-194.
Insulin Resistance: A Multifaceted Syndrome Responsible for NIDDM, Obesity, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. Ralph A DeFronzo, MD and Eleuterio Ferrannini, MD. Diabetes 2017 Apr; 66(4): 815-822.
Role of Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in the Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the San Antonio Metabolism Study. Amalia Gastaldelli, Melania Gaggini and Ralph A. DeFronzo. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(4):473-481.
Obesity and insulin resistance. Barbara B. Kahn, Jeffrey S. Flier. Diabetes. 2000 Dec; 49(12): 2063–2069.
Mechanism by Which Metformin Reduces Glucose Production in Type 2 Diabetes. Ripudaman S. Hundal, Martin Krssak, Sylvie Dufour, Didier Laurent, Vincent Lebon, Visvanathan Chandramouli, Silvio E. Inzucchi, William C. Schumann, Kitt F. Petersen, Bernard R. Landau, and Gerald I. Shulman. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016.
Efficacy and safety of insulin in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Erpeldinger S, et al. Diabetes Care 1980 Mar; 3(2): 270-273.
“Normal” Insulin Secretion: The Goal of Artificial Insulin Delivery Systems? R Philip Eaton, Richard C Allen, David S Schade and James C Standefer. Metabolism Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 47-52.
Quantitative contributions of gluconeogenesis to glucose production during fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alexandre Wajngot, Visvanathan Chandramouli, William C. Schumann, Karin Ekberg, Paul K. Jones, Suad Efendic, Bernard R. Landau. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016 Jun 1;130(12):1017-25.
Impaired glucose tolerance after brief heat exposure: a randomized crossover study in healthy young men. Faure C, Charlot K, Henri S, Hardy-Dessources MD, Hue O, Antoine-Jonville S. Appetite. 2010 Aug; 55(1): 37–43.
Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Stephen D. Anton, Ph.D., Corby K. Martin, Ph.D., Hongmei Han, M.S., Sandra Coulon, B.A., William T. Cefalu, M.D., Paula Geiselman, Ph.D., and Donald A. Williamson, Ph.D. Diabetes Care 2004 Jan; 27(1): 281-282.
Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Subjects With Insulin Resistance or Type 2 Diabetes. Carol S. Johnston, PHD, Cindy M. Kim, MS and Amanda J. Buller, MS. Nutrients. 2013 May; 5(5): 1544–1560.
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Its Connection with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease. Melania Gaggini, Mariangela Morelli, Emma Buzzigoli, Ralph A. DeFronzo, Elisabetta Bugianesi, and Amalia Gastaldelli. Michelle C Venables, Carl J Hulston, Hannah R Cox, Asker E Jeukendrup;
Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 87, Issue 3, 1 March 2008, Pages 778–784. Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar;101(6):886-94.
Effects of dietary supplementation with the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on insulin resistance and associated metabolic risk factors: randomized controlled trial. Brown AL, Lane J, Coverly J, Stocks J, Jackson S, Stephen A, Bluck L, Coward A, Hendrickx H. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(6):365-374.
Continuous Glucose Monitoring Versus Usual Care in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Multiple Daily Insulin Injections: A Randomized Trial. Roy W. Beck, MD, PhD, et.al. Gisela Wilcox.
Insulin and Insulin Resistance. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005 May; 26(2): 19–39. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 8; 106(36): 15430–15435.
Intrahepatic fat, not visceral fat, is linked with metabolic complications of obesity. Elisa Fabbrini,et.al. Erion, K.A. & Corkey, B.E. (2017).
Hyperinsulinemia: a Cause of Obesity? Curr Obes Rep (2017) 6: 178. Shanik MH1, Xu Y, Skrha J, Dankner R, Zick Y, Roth J. (2008).
Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia: is hyperinsulinemia the cart or the horse? Diabetes Care. 2008 Feb;31 Suppl 2:S262-8.
Here are some of the scientific studies concerning Protein Sparing Modified Fasts (PSMF) and high protein diets.
A Palgi, J L Read, I Greenberg, M A Hoefer, B R Bistrian, and G L Blackburn
Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: results in 668 outpatients. American Journal of Public Health, October 1985 Bistrian DR, Winterer J, Blackburn GL, Young V, Sherman M..
Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects, J Lab Clin Med. 1977 May;89(5):1030-5. Van Gaal LF, Snyders D, De Leeuw IH, Bekaert JL.
Anthropometric and calorimetric evidence for the protein sparing effects of a new protein supplemented low calorie preparation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985; 41:410-540. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):416-21.
Benefits of high-protein weight loss diets: enough evidence for practice? Brehm BJ, D’Alessio DA. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1298-306.
Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Noakes M, Keogh JB, Foster PR, Clifton PM. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):317-25.
Comparison of the effects of weight loss from a high-protein versus standard-protein energy-restricted diet on strength and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese men. Wycherley TP, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Brinkworth GD. Schoeller DA1, Buchholz AC.
Energetics of obesity and weight control: does diet composition matter?J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May;105(5 Suppl 1):S24-8. Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, Christou DD.
A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):411-7. Halton TL, Hu FB.
The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):373-85. Brehm BJ, D’Alessio DA.
Benefits of high-protein weight loss diets: enough evidence for practice? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):416-21. de Luis, et.al.
Effects of a high-protein/low carbohydrate versus a standard hypocaloric diet on adipocytokine levels and insulin resistance in obese patients along 9 months. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. Volume 29, Issue 7, September–October 2015, Pages 950-954. Muscle Protein Synthesis
Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle protein synthesis is modulated by insulin-induced changes in muscle blood flow and amino acid availability Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct; 291(4): E745–E754. Buse, M. G. & Reid, S. S. (1975)
Leucine. A possible regulator of protein turnover in muscle. J. Clin. Invest. 56:1250–1261. Hong, S. C. & Layman, D. K. (1984)
Effects of leucine on in vitro protein synthesis and degradation in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. 114:1204–1212. Li, J. B. & Jefferson, L. S. (1978)
Influence of amino acid availability on protein turnover in perfused skeletal muscle. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 544:351–359. Lundholm K, Edström S, Ekman L, Karlberg I, Walker P, Scherstén T.
Protein Degradation in Human Skeletal Muscle Tissue: The Effect of Insulin, Leucine, Amino Acids. Clin Sci (Lond). 1981 Mar;60(3):319-26.
Studies on Protein and Diabetes
Donald K. Layman, Jamie I. Baum.
Dietary Protein Impact on Glycemic Control during Weight Loss. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 4, 1 April 2004, Pages 968S–973S. Judith Farrés, Albert Pujol, Mireia Coma, Jose Luis Ruiz, Jordi Naval, José Manuel Mas, Agustí Molins, Joan Fondevila and Patrick Aloy.
Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. Nutrition & Metabolism 2010 7:88. Chang J, Kashyap SR.
The protein-sparing modified fast for obese patients with type 2 diabetes: what to expect. Cleveland Clinic J Med. 2014;81:557-565. Bruce R Bistrian, M.D., Ph.D., George L Blackburn, M.D., Ph.D., Jean-Pierre Flatt, Ph.D., Jack Sizer, M.D., Nevin S Scrimshaw, Ph.D., M.D. and Mindy Sherman, B.A.
Nitrogen Metabolism and Insulin Requirements in Obese Diabetic Adults on a Protein-Sparing Modified Fast. Diabetes 1976 Jun; 25(6): 494-504. Mary C Gannon, Frank Q Nuttall, Asad Saeed, Kelly Jordan, and Heidi Hoover.
An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition October 2003 vol. 78 no. 4 pp 734-741. Diabetes 2004 Sep; 53(9): 2375-2382.
Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People With Type 2 Diabetes. Mary C. Gannon and Frank Q. Nuttall. Obes Facts. 2017 Jul; 10(3): 238–251.
Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Ismael Campos-Nonato, Lucia Hernandez, and Simon Barquera. Protein as a Macronutrient and Protein Requirements
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 77, Issue 1, 1 January 2003, Pages 109–127.
Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults. William M Rand Peter L Pellett Vernon R Young. Jose Antonio, Corey A Peacock, Anya Ellerbroek, Brandon Fromhoff and Tobin Silver.
The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2014:11:19. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Mar;103(3):738-46. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119339. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Longland TM, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips SM.
This BLOG post will list Low Carbohydrate Diet Studies and will grow with time. New studies will be added to the end of this list.
Bueno, N., De Melo, I., De Oliveira, S., & Da Rocha Ataide, T. (2013).
Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(7), 1178-1187. A Paoli, A Rubini, J S Volek & K A Grimaldi.
Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 67, pages 789–796 (2013) Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B. Crujeiras, Ana I. Castro, Miguel A. Martinez-Olmos, Ana Canton, Lucia Ordoñez-Mayan, Ignacio Sajoux, Cristobal Galban, Diego Bellido, and Felipe F. Casanueva (2018).
Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018; 15: 18. Anssi H Manninen (2004).
Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood “Villains” of Human Metabolism. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2004; 1(2): 7–11. Anssi H Manninen (2006).
Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006; 3: 9. Daniel R. Moore (2014).
Keeping Older Muscle “Young” through Dietary Protein and Physical Activity. Adv Nutr. 2014 Sep; 5(5): 599S–607S. Gisela Wilcox (2005).
Insulin and Insulin Resistance. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005 May; 26(2): 19–39. Tay J, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Thompson CH, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Wittert GA, Yancy WS Jr, Brinkworth GD. (2015).
Comparison of low- and high-carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;102(4):780-90. Judith Farrés, Albert Pujol, Mireia Coma, Jose Luis Ruiz, Jordi Naval, José Manuel Mas, Agustí Molins, Joan Fondevila and Patrick Aloy. (2010).
Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. Nutrition & Metabolism 2010 7:88. JS Volek, MJ Sharman, AL Gómez, DA Judelson, MR Rubin, G Watson, B Sokmen, R Silvestre, DN French and WJ Kraemer. (2004).
Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutrition & Metabolism 2004 1:13 Olga T. Hardy, Michael P. Czech, and Silvia Corvera. (2012).
What causes the insulin resistance underlying obesity?. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012 Apr; 19(2): 81–87. Bonnie J. Brehm, Randy J. Seeley, Stephen R. Daniels, David A. D’Alessio. (2003).
A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 88, Issue 4, 1 April 2003, Pages 1617–1623. Eric C Westman MD, MHS, William S Yancy MD, Joel S Edman D Sc, Keith F Tomlin, Christine E Perkins MSW. (2002).
Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. The American Journal of Medicine,Volume 113, Issue 1, July 2002, Pages 30-36. Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, Kim S, Stafford RS, Balise RR, Kraemer HC, King AC. (2007).
Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 Mar 7;297(9):969-77. Jeannie Tay B Nutr Diet (Hons), Grant D. Brinkworth PhD, Manny Noakes PhD, Jennifer Keogh M Sc, Peter M. Clifton PhD. (2008).
Metabolic Effects of Weight Loss on a Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diet Compared With an Isocaloric High-Carbohydrate Diet in Abdominally Obese Subjects. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 51, Issue 1, 1–8 January 2008, Pages 59-67. Mary C Gannon, Frank Q Nuttall, Asad Saeed, Kelly Jordan, and Heidi Hoover. (2003).
An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition October 2003 vol. 78 no. 4 pp 734-741. HALES, C. N.; RANDLE, P. J. (1963).
Effects of low-carbohydrate diet and diabetes mellitus on plasma concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, and insulin during oral glucose-tolerance tests. Lancet 1963 Vol.1 pp.790-794. Stephen D Phinney. (2004).
Ketogenic diets and physical performance. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2004; 1: 2. Dumesnil JG, Turgeon J, Tremblay A, Poirier P, Gilbert M, Gagnon L, St-Pierre S, Garneau C, Lemieux I, Pascot A, Bergeron J, Després JP. (2001).
Effect of a low-glycaemic index–low-fat–high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men. Br J Nutr. 2001 Nov. 86(5):557-68. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):23-32. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27326. Epub 2009 May 13.
Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Diabetes Care. 2014 Nov;37(11):2909-18.
A very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Tay J, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Thompson CH, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Wittert GA, Yancy WS Jr, Brinkworth GD. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(4):267-73.
Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate weight loss diet on exercise capacity and tolerance in overweight and obese adults. Wycherley TP, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Brinkworth GD. Endocr Pract. 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1):47-52.
Identifying prediabetes using fasting insulin levels. Johnson JL1, Duick DS, Chui MA, Aldasouqi SA. Appetite. 2010 Aug; 55(1): 37–43.
Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Stephen D. Anton, Ph.D., Corby K. Martin, Ph.D., Hongmei Han, M.S., Sandra Coulon, B.A., William T. Cefalu, M.D., Paula Geiselman, Ph.D., and Donald A. Williamson, Ph.D N Engl J Med 2008; 359:229-241.
Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. Iris Shai, R.D., Ph.D., Dan Schwarzfuchs, M.D., Yaakov Henkin, M.D., Danit R. Shahar, R.D., Ph.D., Shula Witkow, R.D., M.P.H., Ilana Greenberg, R.D., M.P.H., Rachel Golan, R.D., M.P.H., Drora Fraser, Ph.D., Arkady Bolotin, Ph.D., Hilel Vardi, M.Sc., Osnat Tangi-Rozental, B.A., Rachel Zuk-Ramot, R.N., et al., for the Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) Group N Engl J Med 2003; 348:2074-2081.
A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity. Frederick F. Samaha, M.D., Nayyar Iqbal, M.D., Prakash Seshadri, M.D., Kathryn L. Chicano, C.R.N.P., Denise A. Daily, R.D., Joyce McGrory, C.R.N.P., Terrence Williams, B.S., Monica Williams, B.S., Edward J. Gracely, Ph.D., and Linda Stern, M.D.
Nutrition & Metabolism 2008 5:36. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eric C Westman, William S Yancy Jr, John C Mavropoulos, Megan Marquart and Jennifer R McDuffie. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 83, Issue 5, 1 May 2006, Pages 1055–1061.
Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. Carol S Johnston Sherrie L Tjonn Pamela D Swan Andrea White Heather Hutchins Barry Sears JAMA, June 27, 2012—Vol 307, No. 24 2627.
Effects of Dietary Composition on Energy Expenditure During Weight-Loss Maintenance . Cara B. Ebbeling, PhD, Janis F. Swain, MS, RD, Henry A. Feldman, PhD, William W. Wong, PhD, David L. Hachey, PhD, Erica Garcia-Lago, BA, David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 104, Issue 2, 1 August 2016, Pages 324–333.
Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men.
Kevin D Hall, Kong Y Chen, Juen Guo Yan, Y Lam, Rudolph L Leibel, Laurel ES Mayer, Marc L Reitman, Michael Rosenbaum, Steven R Smith, B Timothy Walsh. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 83, Issue 6, 1 June 2006, Pages 1442–1443.
Metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate diets: a calorie is still not a calorie. Anssi H Manninen. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012;25(7-8):697-704.
Metabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescents. Partsalaki I, Karvela A, Spiliotis BE. Mar Drugs. 2015 Feb 13;13(2):996-1009.
Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic Mediterranean diet. Paoli A, Moro T, Bosco G, Bianco A, Grimaldi KA, Camporesi E, Mangar D. Joseph C. Anderson.
Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Dec; 23(12): 2327–2334. Søren Toubro, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen, Charlotte Hindsberger, Niels, Juel Christensen, Arne Astrup.
Twenty-Four-Hour Respiratory Quotient: The Role of Diet and Familial Resemblance. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 83, Issue 8, 1 August 1998, Pages 2758–2764. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 May;57(5 Suppl):759S-764S.
Food quotient, respiratory quotient, and energy balance. Westerterp KR. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):9-17.
The Zone Diet phenomenon: a closer look at the science behind the claims. Cheuvront SN. (Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp 152-156.
Low Intake of Aspartame Induced Weight Gain and Damage of Brain & Liver Cells in Weanling Syrian Hamsters. Magda Ibrahim Hassan, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Appetite, Volume 60, 1 January 2013, Pages 203-207 Appetite.
Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels. Fernanda de MatosFeijó, et.al.
This BLOG will replace
My T2D BLOG since my interests have expanded well beyond Type 2 Diabetes. This BLOG will cover subjects relating to Low Carbohydrate Dieting but will concentrate on the science of Low Carbohydrate Diets.