I listened to an interesting Break Nutrition podcast (Episode 13 – What happens to fructose-fed monkeys?) on a study of Rhesus Monkeys who were fed fructose meals (Bremer AA, Stanhope KL, Graham JL, Cummings BP, Wang W, Saville BR, Havel PJ. Fructose-fed rhesus monkeys: a nonhuman primate model of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Clin Transl Sci. 2011 Aug;4(4):243-52). (Full PDF).
…a high-fructose diet in rhesus monkeys produces insulin resistance and many features of the metabolic syndrome, including central obesity, dyslipidemia, and infl ammation within a short period of time; moreover, a subset of monkeys developed type 2 diabetes
A Rhesus monkey used in the study is closer genetically to a human than the typical mouse study.
Numerous animal studies, mostly conducted in rodents, have shown that diets high in fructose produce metabolic perturbations associated with the metabolic syndrome and T2DM.
However, important metabolic differences exist between rodents and primates, particularly with respect to lipoprotein metabolism,the major site of lipogenesis (liver vs. adipose), and the physiology of thermogenesis.
Therefore, the results of metabolic studies performed in primates are substantively more applicable to human physiology and medicine than those from rodent studies, underscoring the importance of developing standardized nonhuman primate models of insulin resistance for the study of metabolic syndrome and T2DM.
Kimber Stanhope was one of the authors of this study. See her other study on Fructose (Not All [Sugar] Is Bad).
The charts in the study are very interesting. Gabor discusses them on the podcast.