From this study (J Clin Invest. 1985 Mar; 75(3): 809–817. Hyperinsulinemia. A link between hypertension obesity and glucose intolerance. M Modan, H Halkin, S Almog, A Lusky, A Eshkol, M Shefi, A Shitrit, and Z Fuchs):
83.4% of the hypertensives were either glucose-intolerant or obese–both established insulin-resistant conditions.
We conclude that insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia
(a) are present in the majority of hypertensives, (b) constitute
a common pathophysiologic feature of obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension, possibly explaining their ubiquitous association, and (c) may be linked to the increased peripheral vascular resistance of hypertension, which is putatively related to elevated intracellular sodium concentration.
Hypertension? Cause may be elevated Insulin levels.