Here are some of the scientific studies concerning Protein Sparing Modified Fasts (PSMF) and high protein diets.
- A Palgi, J L Read, I Greenberg, M A Hoefer, B R Bistrian, and G L Blackburn Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: results in 668 outpatients. American Journal of Public Health, October 1985
- Bistrian DR, Winterer J, Blackburn GL, Young V, Sherman M.. Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects, J Lab Clin Med. 1977 May;89(5):1030-5.
- Van Gaal LF, Snyders D, De Leeuw IH, Bekaert JL. Anthropometric and calorimetric evidence for the protein sparing effects of a new protein supplemented low calorie preparation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985; 41:410-540.
- Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):416-21. Benefits of high-protein weight loss diets: enough evidence for practice? Brehm BJ, D’Alessio DA.
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1298-306. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Noakes M, Keogh JB, Foster PR, Clifton PM.
- Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):317-25. Comparison of the effects of weight loss from a high-protein versus standard-protein energy-restricted diet on strength and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese men. Wycherley TP, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Brinkworth GD.
- Schoeller DA1, Buchholz AC. Energetics of obesity and weight control: does diet composition matter?J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May;105(5 Suppl 1):S24-8.
- Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, Christou DD. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):411-7.
- Halton TL, Hu FB. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):373-85.
- Brehm BJ, D’Alessio DA. Benefits of high-protein weight loss diets: enough evidence for practice? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):416-21.
- de Luis, et.al. Effects of a high-protein/low carbohydrate versus a standard hypocaloric diet on adipocytokine levels and insulin resistance in obese patients along 9 months. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. Volume 29, Issue 7, September–October 2015, Pages 950-954.
Muscle Protein Synthesis
- Satoshi Fujita,et.al. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle protein synthesis is modulated by insulin-induced changes in muscle blood flow and amino acid availability Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct; 291(4): E745–E754.
- Buse, M. G. & Reid, S. S. (1975) Leucine. A possible regulator of protein turnover in muscle. J. Clin. Invest. 56:1250–1261.
- Hong, S. C. & Layman, D. K. (1984) Effects of leucine on in vitro protein synthesis and degradation in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. 114:1204–1212.
- Li, J. B. & Jefferson, L. S. (1978) Influence of amino acid availability on protein turnover in perfused skeletal muscle. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 544:351–359.
- Lundholm K, Edström S, Ekman L, Karlberg I, Walker P, Scherstén T. Protein Degradation in Human Skeletal Muscle Tissue: The Effect of Insulin, Leucine, Amino Acids. Clin Sci (Lond). 1981 Mar;60(3):319-26.
Donald K. Layman et.al. Dietary Protein and Exercise Have Additive Effects on Body Composition during Weight Loss in Adult Women. J Nutr 135: 1903, 2005.Donald K. Layman et.al, A Moderate-Protein Diet Produces Sustained Weight Loss and Long-Term Changes in Body Composition and Blood Lipids in Obese Adults. J Nutr 139: 514, 2009.
Studies on Protein and Diabetes
- Donald K. Layman, Jamie I. Baum. Dietary Protein Impact on Glycemic Control during Weight Loss. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 4, 1 April 2004, Pages 968S–973S.
- Judith Farrés, Albert Pujol, Mireia Coma, Jose Luis Ruiz, Jordi Naval, José Manuel Mas, Agustí Molins, Joan Fondevila and Patrick Aloy. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. Nutrition & Metabolism 2010 7:88.
- Chang J, Kashyap SR. The protein-sparing modified fast for obese patients with type 2 diabetes: what to expect. Cleveland Clinic J Med. 2014;81:557-565.
- Bruce R Bistrian, M.D., Ph.D., George L Blackburn, M.D., Ph.D., Jean-Pierre Flatt, Ph.D., Jack Sizer, M.D., Nevin S Scrimshaw, Ph.D., M.D. and Mindy Sherman, B.A. Nitrogen Metabolism and Insulin Requirements in Obese Diabetic Adults on a Protein-Sparing Modified Fast. Diabetes 1976 Jun; 25(6): 494-504.
- Mary C Gannon, Frank Q Nuttall, Asad Saeed, Kelly Jordan, and Heidi Hoover. An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition October 2003 vol. 78 no. 4 pp 734-741.
- Diabetes 2004 Sep; 53(9): 2375-2382. Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People With Type 2 Diabetes. Mary C. Gannon and Frank Q. Nuttall.
- Obes Facts. 2017 Jul; 10(3): 238–251. Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Ismael Campos-Nonato, Lucia Hernandez, and Simon Barquera.
Protein as a Macronutrient and Protein Requirements
- The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 77, Issue 1, 1 January 2003, Pages 109–127. Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults. William M Rand Peter L Pellett Vernon R Young.
- Jose Antonio, Corey A Peacock, Anya Ellerbroek, Brandon Fromhoff and Tobin Silver. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2014:11:19.
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Mar;103(3):738-46. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119339. Epub 2016 Jan 27. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Longland TM, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips SM.