Here’s an interesting study which indicates that Protein taken before bed stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis (Tim Snijders, Peter T Res, Joey SJ Smeets, Stephan van Vliet, Janneau van Kranenburg, Kamiel Maase, Arie K Kies, Lex B Verdijk, Luc JC van Loon; Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Muscle Mass and Strength Gains during Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Healthy Young Men, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 145, Issue 6, 1 June 2015, Pages 1178–1184).
Methods: Forty-four young men (22 ± 1 y) were randomly assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance exercise training program. One group consumed a protein supplement containing 27.5 g of protein, 15 g of carbohydrate, and 0.1 g of fat every night before sleep. The other group received a noncaloric placebo. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed on a whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), limb (computed tomography scan), and muscle fiber (muscle biopsy specimen) level before and after exercise training. Strength was assessed regularly by 1-repetition maximum strength testing.
Results: Muscle strength increased after resistance exercise training to a significantly greater extent in the protein-supplemented (PRO) group than in the placebo-supplemented (PLA) group (+164 ± 11 kg and +130 ± 9 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in both groups over time (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in the PRO group than in the PLA group (+8.4 ± 1.1 cm2 vs. +4.8 ± 0.8 cm2, respectively; P < 0.05).
Both type I and type II muscle fiber size increased after exercise training (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in type II muscle fiber size in the PRO group (+2319 ± 368 μm2) than in the PLA group (+1017 ± 353 μm2; P < 0.05).