Exogenous Ketones – Part 1

Taking ketones may reduce your own body’s production of ketones (Metabolism, Volume 24, Issue 9, September 1975, Pages 999-1007. Inhibition of ketogenesis by ketone bodies in fasting humans. E.O. Balasseab, M.A.Neefab):

The administration of exogenous ketones during the second phase of the study induced a 47%–92% increase in total ketone levels. During this period, the endogenous production of ketones (calculated as the difference between total inflow rate and acetoacetate infusion rate) amounted only to 67%–90% of control values. Among other factors, this inhibition of ketogenesis was probably partially related to the direct antilipolytic effect of infused ketones. Indeed, there was a concomitant fall in FFA and in glycerol levels averaging respectively 13.5% and 17.3%, without significant changes in peripheral insulin concentrations.

Our results demonstrate that during fasting, circulating ketone bodies exert an inhibitory influence on the rate of ketogenesis. This mechanism might play an important role in preventing the development of uncontrolled hyperketonemia during starvation.

Second Study

Another study (Physiol., 30 October 2017. On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans. Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Rhys D. Evans, Peter Santer, Jack J. Miller, Olivia K. Faull, Snapper Magor-Elliott, Satoshi Hiyama, Matthew Stirling and Kieran Clarke):

Drinks containing exogenous ketones, in either ester or salt form, can raise concentrations of blood βHB in humans, although elevation of L-βHB lasts longer after racemic KS consumption. Both KE and KS drinks mildly altered acid-base balance. Exogenous ketones lowered blood glucose and lipids without inhibiting endogenous insulin secretion. The KE delivered highly repeatable blood concentrations of D-βHB, although ketosis was decreased by a meal. Uptake and elimination of D-βHB were similar when several drinks were consumed in succession. The dietary KE could maintain ketosis using drinks taken regularly around a normal meal pattern, or using a continuous infusion via a nasogastric tube. Therefore, ketone drinks are a viable and practical alternative to dietary strategies to achieve ketosis.

Third Study

From a study by a guy I respect (Cell Metabolism, Volume 24, Issue 3, 13 September 2016, Pages 373-375. Fueling Performance: Ketones Enter the Mix. (PDF) Brendan Egan, Dominic P.D’Agostino.)

…exogenous ketones can confer a performance benefit to elite athletes through a combination of fuel sparing and improved energetic efficiency.

…the often-cited higher energetic efficiency of exogenous ketones may provide thermodynamic advantages over CHO and fat given the greater free energy of ATP hydrolysis (ΔG′ATP) and less oxygen required per mole of carbon. In practical terms, this would translate as a higher power output for the same oxygen consumption (i.e., improved muscular efficiency) during exercise, and thereby confer a performance benefit as observed.

A Fourth Study

Another study (Cell Metabolism 24, 256–268. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk,  Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J. Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W. McLure, M. Todd King, Michael S. Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L. Veech, Julian L. Griffin, and Kieran Clarke).

We have demonstrated the metabolic effects of elevated circulating
ketone bodies as a fuel and biological signal to create a
unique physiological condition. Ketosis may alter substrate
competition for respiration, while improving oxidative energy
transduction under certain conditions, such as endurance exercise.
Consequently, nutritional ketosis may help to unlock
greater human metabolic potential.

A Fifth Study

Another study looked at the safety of exogenous ketones (Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 63 (2012), pp. 401-408. Kinetics, safety and tolerability of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate in healthy adult subjects. Clarke et al., 2012. K. Clarke, K. Tchabanenko, R. Pawlosky, E. Carter, M. Todd King, K. Musa-Veloso, M. Ho, A. Roberts, J. Robertson, T.B. Vanitallie, R.L. Veech):

…the pharmacokinetic properties and safety of a synthetic ketone monoester was evaluated in healthy adult humans. The ketone monoester was completely hydrolyzed to its components (D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3-butanediol), resulting in increased plasma levels of the ketones, D-β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Ingestion of the ketone monoester over a period of 5 days was generally well tolerated. Some gastrointestinal disturbances were observed in individuals who consumed the highest dose (2142 mg/kg bw/day taken in three divided doses of 714 mg/kg bw/day daily), though these were considered to be related to the large volumes (>1 l) of a milk-based drink consumed in a short period, rather than effects caused by the ketone monoester.

So… I Ordered This Item

I ordered this item from Perfect Keto. It’s a keto supplement with a lot of βHB (Beta hydroxybutyrate).

Nutritional Facts

Here’s the nutritional facts for this product:

I have to wonder if the people who liked the energy from this were getting energy from the extra salt? Looks like it provides a good amount of Magnesium as well.

Expectations?

I don’t have high expectations for the result since I have been in ketosis for around 20 months). It will be interesting to see if I get the tingles that are described by some people.

Expensive Stuff

The cost was not cheap at $60 for 15 servings ($4 a serving seems like a whole lot of money).

 

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